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Regulamentul Ing

In acest articol este o copie in Engleza a regulamentului Ing preluata de la adresa :

http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~wjh/go/rules/SST.html

Textul nu este încă tradus complet, şi va dura ceva săptămîni pînă voi finaliza traducerea

Ing’s SST Laws of Wei-ch’i

Chapter 1 Rules of Competition

Article 1: The move
Moves are board or pass plays. Moves are unrestricted except for invariation.

Wei-ch’i: Wei-ch’i is a contest for points. The points gained, whether stones or spaces, are called points of territory. The winner is the side with more points of territory.

Game: In wei-ch’i, a single contest is called a game. The game starts from an empty board. Black and White play one move at a time, Black playing first and White second. When the score is counted by filling in after the end of the game, the winner is said to have won by counting. When the score is not counted, the winner is said to have won without counting.

Move: Moves, also called plays, are classified as board plays and pass plays. A move must provide variation. Moves not resulting in variation are prohibited, because if such moves were to continue, the game would have to be annulled. A board play changes the position on the board and increases the number of moves played; a pass play only increases the number of moves played. A game starts with a board play and ends with pass plays.

Board Play: In these laws the move is unrestricted except for invariation, so a board play can be made on any point that does not cause invariation through repetition of the same position or recycling. Self-removal of a single stone, immediate removal of hot stones, and recycling are prohibited because of invariation. Self removal of a group of stones does not cause invariation so it is not prohibited.

Pass Play: A player passes when resigning, in which case play naturally stops. If one player passes but does not resign, play continues. After the neutral points have been filled, both players pass and play pauses. After the dead stones have been taken away, both players pass again and play ends.

Article 2: Removal
Breathless stones are removed. Determine life and death by identifying breath types.

Breathless: Spaces next to stones in a life-or-death situation are called breathing points, or breaths. These laws classify breaths according to life and death: permanent breaths for independent life, balancing breaths for coexistence, unreal breaths for non-life, fighting breaths for ko life, and interchangable breaths for disturbances that do not alter life and death. Stones that have lost all their unreal breaths are said to be breathless.

Removal: Breathless stones are taken off the board by the player who eliminated their last breath, whether the stones belong to that player or his opponent. This is called removal. When the stones of both sides become breathless simultaneously, the player removes his opponent’s stones. Removals that would cause invariation are subject to restriction; to prevent invariation, they are played out as ko, divided into fighting ko and disturbing ko.

Life and Death: Stones live or die according to whether they can be removed. Stones that can be removed are dead; stones that cannot be removed are alive. These are the only crieria for life and death. Disputes about taking away dead stones cannot be settled by special rulings.

Article 3: Ko
Ko prevents invariation. Ko is classified as fighting or disturbing.

Ko stones: Stones that can be repeatedly or cyclically removed are called ko stones. There are three types: single ko stones, double ko stones, and triple ko stones.

Ko position: A position including ko stones is called a ko position. These laws divide ko positions into fighting and disturbing ko. Every ko position must have an outcome; the game must not end without result.

Fighting ko: When life and death are not settled, repeated fighting for breaths is called a fighting ko. The ko stones in the repeating fight are called hot stones. Hot stones cannot be removed until after an interval of one board play or pass play.

Hot stones: A single ko stone that has removed a stone in a single ko becomes a single hot stone. When one stone is added to another to make double ko stones in an eternal life position, these become double hot stones. In a triple ko, besides the single hot stone there is another single or double ko stone; these are also regarded as hot stones, called twin hot stones. Twin hotstones are thus used in triple ko, which was left unresolved by traditional ko rules.

Disturbing ko: When life and death are settled, recycling of interchangable breaths is called a disturbing ko. The player who starts a disturbing ko is called the disturber. By attacking his opponent or using a double ko, the disturber creates a disturbing ko with no hot stones. After one cycle, the disturber is never allowed to continue disturbing.

Article 4: Counting

Stones and spaces are both territory. All stones are filled in to count.

Criteria: The counting criteria in these laws are that stones and spaces are both territory. The sum of the points in both sides’ territory is always the total number of points on the board, and the difference is the margin of victory.

Procedure: The counting procedure given by these laws fills in all stones without moving any stones in the original configuration, making the score clear at a glance. Fill-in counting is done using bowls with Ing’s measuring frames.

Filling in: After both players have filled in their stones, any remaining spaces are called winning spaces and any remaining stones are called losing stones. Spaces adjacent to both black and white stones in coexistence are called shared spaces; each player fills half of them. If there is only one shared space, neither player can fill it.

Positioning: Winning spaces are positioned in a corner, or on a side if no corner is available. Losing stones are filled into the opponents winning spaces. For compensation points and time difference penalty points, one stone for every two points is filled into a separate area near the winning or shared space.

Counting: The score of the game is the difference value. The difference value includes one point for the winning space and two points for each losing stone, compensation stone, and penalty stone. A game with no difference is a draw, both sides having equal amounts of territory.

Chapter 2 Tournament Rules

Article 5: Tournament agreement

Tournament agreement: An agreement to hold a tournament is referred to as a tournament agreement or tournament contract. The agreement should stipulate: (1) the name of the tournament, (2) the object of the tournament, (3) qualifications for entry, (4) the entry deadline, (5) the rules, (6) handicap conditions, (7) time limits for games, (8) penalties, (9) required conduct, and (10) rights and duties. In a formal tournament the sponsors, together with cooperating organizations, or individuals must determine the tournament agreement beforehand, the players must abide by it, and the referee must enforce it.
Game arrangement: Tournament games should normally be played under standard conditions, with two players and one board. However, tournaments may also be played under the pair system with two players playing alternately on each side, or the consultation system with two or more players consulting on each side. Tournaments can also be played using telecommunications equipment such as facsimile machines or computers instead of having players face each other across the board.
Tournament system: The tournament system must be clearly stated in the tournament agreement. The tournament should follow a system suitable for its purpose, number of contestants, and duration. Possibilities include single elimination, multiple elimination, round-robin, team elimination, the Ing system, a ten-game match, and so on. The number of games and the schedule should be decided in detail. Scoring: In an elimination or round-robin tournament, standings are determined by primary and secondary scores. Primary scores are equal to the number of wins: a player get one point per won game. When players are tied on primary scores, the tie is broken by secondary scores. There are four types of secondary scores: A1, A2, B1, and B2. A1 is the sum of defeated opponents’ primary scores. A2 is the sum of other opponents’ primary scores. B1 is the sum of defeated opponents’ secondary scores. B2 is the sum of the other opponents’ secondary scores. Ties on primary scores are broken by comparing A1, ties on A1 are broken by comparing A2, and so on.

Article 6: Handicaps

Handicap: Differences between players’ strengths are adjusted by three methods of handicapping: compensation points, taking black, and handicap plays. The handicapping system uses one or more of these methods to equalize the players’ chances of winning the game. Games played under the handicapping system are said to be handicapped. Other games are said to be unhandicapped.
Ranks: The SST ranks are ping, tuan, and chi. Professional players have ping ranks, running from 1 (high) to 9 (low). The difference per ping is 1/4 play or two points. Strong amateurs have tuan ranks, running from 9 (high) to 1(low). The difference per yuan is 1/2 play or four points. Players weaker than 1 tuan have chi ranks running from 1 (high) to 9 (low). Players weaker than 9 chi are not ranked. Each organization may, according to methods they stipulate, determine their own players’ ranks and certify such ranks for use in tournaments. They may also retract certification of a player who obstructs a tournament in violation of the spirit of the competition. A chart of the ping, tuan, and chi rankings is appended on a later page.
Compensation points: Compensation points are now universally used to equalize games in which the difference between the players’ strengths is a fraction of a play, or a whole number of plays plus a fraction. Although it has existed for less than a century, this system has completely replaced the outdated system of equalization over a series of games. Game statistics show that Black’s advantage in playing first is worth 16 points of territory. In a single even game (zero-play handicap) it is not possible to give each player black an equal number of times, so black gives white eight points of territory, which is half the advantage of playing first. The win rate then approaches 50 percent. This system is referred to as eight-point compensation in even games. For draws, a practical rule is to award the game to black.
Choosing colors: In an even game, colors are chosen as follows. The older player takes a handful of white stones and his opponent guesses even or odd. If he guesses correctly, he can choose black or white. Otherwise, the older player chooses black or white.
Handicap plays: When the differenc in strength between the two players is two plays or more, handicap plays are used. The game is said to be a handicap-play game. In a one-play handicap, for example, Black makes a board play anywhere, White makes a mandatory pass play, then Black makes another board play anywhere. The size of the handicap is one less than the number of (N) of initial board plays by Black. Changing the traditional handicap stones to handicap plays conforms to the following principles: (1) Black first, White second; (2) one move at a time; (3) the move is unrestricted except for invariation. Handicap stones violate the standard rules for the move because (1) White plays first and Black second, (more than one move is played at a time, and (3) setup stones are required, instead of letting moves be unrestricted except for invariation.

Article 7: Time limits

Time limits: The time limit for a game includes all time used for thinking, playing, removing stones, and so on. The time limit is divided into basic time and additional time. Even in major tournaments, games should be completed in one day. At lunch or dinner, or when a game lasts more than five hours, the players can ask for a short break.
Basic time: Basic time (BT) is the time allotted to each player at the beginning of the game. In a game with time-difference penalty points, if a player does not use all his basic time, the remaining time is not considered in determining the time difference.
Additional time: When a player uses up his basic time, he may receive additional time in one of two forms: penalty points (PP) or second reading (RS).
(1) Penalty points (PP): The penalty for exceeding the basic time limit is two points. The penalty for using additional time in excess of 1/6 the basic time is another two points, making four points in all. The penalty for using additional time in excess of 2/6 the basic time limit is another two points, making six points in all. A player who uses additional time in excess of half the basic time limit forfeits the game. If both players are penalized, opposing penalty points cancel, but the first player whose additional time reaches 3/6 the basics time limit still loses by forfeit.
(2) Second reading (RS): When a player uses up his basic time limit he is allowed to exceed a certain number of seconds per move a certain number of times before forfeiting.
The PP and RS systems are built into Ing’s electronic wei-ch’i timer. The system used should be specified in the tournament agreement.

Article 8: Penalties

Lateness: When a player is late for a game, twice the amount of time by which he is late is deducted from his basic time limit.
Unpenalized mistakes: The following are not penalized.
(1) Mistaken pass: If a player makes a pass play when a point could still be made by a board play, thus failing to make a possible board play, he loses his turn, but is not penalized. If both players overlook the final neutral point and it is discovered during the fill-in procedure, since the game has ended and play cannot resume, the point is left as a shared space. There is no penalty.
(2) Mistaken removal: Double hot stones and twin hot stones were first introduced by these laws. They rarely occur in actual play and are not familiar to all players, so in repetitive or cyclic positions a stone may be removed by mistake. When this is noticed by one or both players or is called to their attention by the referee, parity of moves is restored, then play continues according to the rules with no penalty.
Forfeiture: In the cases listed below, after the occurrence is confirmed by the referee, the offending player forfeits the game.
(1) Failure to appear: a player fails to appear within his time limit.
(2) Abandonment: a player is unable to continue and abandons the game midway through.
(3) Retraction of a play: a player changes a play after making it.
(4) Excessive time: a player exceeds the stipulated time limit.
(5) Defiance: a player refuses to accept the referee’s decision.
Suspension: If a player fails to appear or requests absence more than a stipulated number of times, he is barred from further participation in the tournament and forfeits his remaining games.
Disqualification: A player who intentionally violates the rules or obstructs the progress of the tournament is barred from further participation and disqualified from entering the tournament for a period of years. Extreme violations are punishable by depriving the player of his rank certificatiion, so that he loses his basic qualification for tournament participation.

Article 9: Conduct

Correct conduct: By correct conduct the players show mutual respect, uphold the dignity and character of wei-ch’i, and enable the game to proceed smoothly.
(1) Manners: Before the game, the younger player should clean the board with a soft cloth to show respect for the cleanlienss of the equipment. During the game the players should be neat and tidy in dress. For international games players should wear western clothes.
(2) Deportment: During the game the players should maintain good posture and concentrate fully on the game. They should handle the stones properly and gracefully.
Passing: Indicating a pass play is an important part of the conduct of the game.
(1) Resigning: When a player is losing, can see no way to win, and resigns by making a pass play, he should place two stones on the board to indicate that he has resigned. With the increasing number of international games, players often cannot speak each others’ languages, so a method of indicating pass plays is increasingly important.
(2) Other pass plays: When a player makes a mandatory pass play or passes because he has no points to contest, he should place one stone beside the board, or indicate by other appropriate means that he passes.
Improper conduct: Improper conduct that causes annoyance to the other player during the game is impolite.
(1)Disturbances: When playing a stone the player should not obstruct his opponent’s view by moving the stone over the board. A player should not disturb his opponent while thinking by rattling stones in the board or tapping them on the table.
(2) Bad habits: A player should not hold a supply of stones in his hand, or hold a stone between thumb and forefinger when playing it. When returning stones that have been removed, lobbing them in the general direction of the opponent’s bowl is uncouth.
Counting: When using the fill-in counting system and measuring bowls, the player should observe the following customs:
(1) Verification of the stones: Before the start of the game, the players should use the measuring frame to verify the number of stones, and correct any deficiencies.
(2) Location of stones: During the game, there should be no stones except the live and dead stones on the board, unplayed stones in the bowls, and removed stones in their designated containers.
(3) Putting the stones away: After counting by the fill-in method, each player should replace his own stones in their bowls and check that there are 180 to confirm that the game was counted correctly. If the outcome was close, the loser can ask the referee to supervise the putting away of the stones. If there is no referee, the loser has the right to put away both the black and white stones, and the winner cannot object.
(4) Filling in territory: In counting, the stones should be filled in one at a time, or at most two at a time. If a stone is inadvertently dropped on the board and the other stones moved, the original position must be restored and the opponent’s confirmation obtained before the dropped stone is retrieved. A player cannot arbitrarily restore the original position by himself.

Article 10: Duties

Referee: The referee may also be referred to as the tournament director. In a large tournament with two or more referees, one referee should be appointed chief referee. A referee’s duties are to enforce the tournament rules and rule on matters not prescribed in them, answer the players’ questions and warn them about improper conduct, take charge of the sealed play, and in general keep order at the tournament. He has absolute authority to decide about violations of the rules and issue warnings about conduct; the players must abide by his decisions and warnings. If they do not, the referee should report this to the tournament sponsors and a strict penalty should be applied.
Recorder: A recorder’s duty is to record the plays on a diagram of the wei-ch’i board, using odd Arabic numbers for Black’s plays and even ones for White’s. Pass plays should be numbered and recorded. If a pass play is not followed by a board play, however, the pass play should not be recorded as part of the sequence of plays. The same number must not appear twice in the game record. If there is no recorder but a game record is required, the winner should record the game after it is finished and the loser should sign the game record.
Timekeeper: A timekeeper’s duties are to record the time used by both players, using a tournament clock, to inform a player when he is about to run out of basic time or additional time, and to perform or supervise the reading out of seconds when the second reading system is used. If there is no timekeeper, the recorder must perform these duties. If there is no recorder either, the players must keep the time by operating the tournament clock themselves. Even when a timekeeper is present, if the players are accustomed to operating the tournament clock themselves they have the right to do so, instead of letting the timekeeper operate the clock. The tournament clock is placed at White’s right. The players must play stones and press the clock with the same hand.
Courier: When a commentary is given on a large public board, a courier should be appointed, whose duty is to place the plays recorded by the recorder in their correct positions on the public board. If the game is monitored by a television camera, however, a courier is not needed.

Chapter 3 Equipment Specifications

Article 11: The board

Lines: The board is marked with nineteen vertical lines spaced 2.21 cm apart and nineteen horizontal lines spaced 2.36 cm apart. The vertical lines are identified from left to right by Roman letters from A to T, skipping I. The horizontal lines are numbered 1 to 19 from bottom to top. The board should measure 45 cm vertically, 42 cm horizontally, and at least 2.5 cm in thickness. Besides the standard 19 X 19 board, smaller boards can be used for teaching wei-ch’i to beginners or for short informal games. There are five sizes: 17 X 17 = 289, 15 X 15 = 225, 13 X 13 = 169, 11 X 11 = 121, and 9 X 9 = 81.

Points: The intersections of the horizontal and vertical lines are called „points.” The number of points is the square of the number of lines: 19 X 19 = 361. the nine points at which lines D, K, and Q intersect lines 4, 10, and 16 are marked with small dots to aid in judging distance on the board, and are called star points. The center star point is called t’ien-yuan.
Stones are played on the points at the intersections of the horizontal and vertical lines. The points are then called points of play. Points are also the basic unit of counting territory and determining the margin of victory. The points are then called points of territory.
The 361 points are designated by the letters and numbers of their lines: A, B, C, …, T from left to right and 1, 2, 3, …, 19 from bottom to top. The letter is given first, the number second. The center t’ien-yuan point is K10, the top left corner point is A19, the bottom left corner point is A1, the top right corner point is T19, and the bottom right corner point is T1.


Diagram 3. Wei-ch’i board, showing numbering
and lettering of lines and a Black stone at R16.

Article 12: The stones

Standards: The stones should be disc-shaped and of two colors, black and white. Each stones should be 2.18 cm in diameter, and 1.05 cm thick at the center. The standard grade of stones is 6.5 g in weight.

Number of stones: The number of stones of each color should be half the number of points on the board minus one. For a standard 19-line wei-ch’i board with 361 points, there should be 180 black and 180 white stones.

Article 13: The bowls

Measuring frame: The measuring frame is a device for checking the number of stones. There are three types: removable, retractable, and collapsible. The removable frame is circular and has 19 holes, of which the center hole holds nine spare stones and the other 18 holes hold ten stones each. The retractable and collapsible frames are hexagonal and have 37 holes, of which the center hole holds spare stones and the other 36 holes hold five stones each. These frames fit inside the bowls. When the fill-in counting system is used, bowls with measuring frames are indispensable.

Bowls: The bowls are containers for the stones and are of two types: circular and hexagonal. The black and white stones are kept in separate bowls. The bowls should have removable lids that can be turned upside down to hold removed stones. The bowls should contain measuring frames so that the number of stones can be checked at a glance without having to count. Bowls with measuring frames are necessary implements for keeping the set of stones complete and for using the scientific fill-in counting method.

Article 14: The desk and table

Desk: The desk is 70 cm high, 66.6 cm long, 1 m wide (with a single board) or 2 m wide (with dual boards), and can be used as an ordinary rectangular desk. When a spring is pressed, the top can be rotated to interchange surfaces and present a board for playing or studying wei-ch’i. Panels beside the board slide into racks to reveal containers with retractable measuring frames and space for Ing’s electronic wei-ch’i timer. Desks of this type are suitable for halls accommodating 100 people or more.

Table: The table is 65 cm high, 60 cm long, and 55 cm wide and resembles a square tea table. Ordinarily it can be used as an elegant item of furniture. A spring latch opens the semicircular drawers. Another spring latch enables the top to be rotated, presenting a board for playing or studying wei-ch’i. The board locks into place automatically. The drawers have built-in containers with retractable measuring frames. Tables of this type are suitable for use in the living room of a house.


Explanatory Diagrams for Ing’s SST Laws of Wei-Ch’i

Section A: Pass play restrictions and effects

Passing is not the same as relinquishing one’s turn. A pass play is subject to definite restrictions; relinquishing one’s turn is not. „Pass play” is a technical term in the laws of wei-ch’i; relinquishing one’s turn is a non-technical expression.
A pass play can occur only when mandatory, when a player has no points to contest, or when a player resigns.

1. In a handicap game, one player makes mandatory pass plays.


Diagram A1. Moves 2 and 4 are mandatory
passes by White in a two-play handicap

2. A player may pass because he is unable to contest one-sided neutral points.


Diagram A2. Pass plays due to incontestable
one-sided neutral points. White passes at
moves 2, 4, and 6. Black 3 at A .

3. When one player makes a pass play, his opponent may continue playing, as in Dias. A1 and A2.

4. When both players make one pass play each in succession, play pauses. After two successive passes, however, ko removal is allowed because of the intervening pass play, and if there is a disagreement about life and death when the dead stones are being taken away, play must continue. Play therefore pauses after two pass plays, but does not end. See dias. A3 to A8.

Example of ko removal after an intervening pass play. (5×5 board.)

Diagram A3. Black to play. Is the game over? Which stones are dead? Diagram A4. White 4 is a pass. Mutual attacking with board plays. Diagram A5. Mutual attacking continues. Diagram A6. Result: All black stones die.

After two pass plays the game pauses, but there is disagreement about life and death. The intervening pass plays permit ko removal. The game ends with four pass plays.

Diagram A7. White 4 is a pass. Suppose Black answers with another pass; what is the result? Diagram A8. Ko removal is allowed after a pass play; all black stones die.

5. After taking away the dead stones each player makes one more pass play, ending the game with no further possible disagreement.

Moves must provide variation: moves not resulting in variation are prohibited: all other moves are allowed.

For a board play, a player can select any point except a point that would cause invariation. The move is said to be unrestricted except for invariation. In ordinary language, invariation means: (1) self-removal of a single stone, which is the same as not playing; or (2) playing the same moves over and over, by repeating the same board position or recycling, in a fighting ko or disturbing ko. If the move were completely unrestricted, repetitive or cyclic removal would continue forever, causing invariation.

1. Self-removal of a single stone is prohibited as invariation.


Diagram A9. Self-removal of a
single stone: prohibited as invariation

2. Self-removal of a group of stones.

Self-removal of a group of stones is not prohibited because it does not cause invariation. Self-removal of a group of stones can create variations that have never been seen before. The more variety there is in wei-ch’i, the better; rules that prohibit variation are illogical.


Diagrams A10, A11, A12, A13, A14, and A15. In the Diagrams, White has ko threats at the key points marked X.

Self-removal can be used to fill an opponent’s breathing points.

Diagram A16. Starting position. Diagram A17. Self-removal. Diagram A18. After removal. Diagram A19. Coexistence.

The principle that the move is unrestricted except for invariation is the most important principle in Ing’s rules. Invariation, through repetition of the same position or recycling, prevents the game from ending. Invariation must therefore be prohibited, but other restrictions are unnecessary. Unnecessary restrictions are bad rules because the reduce the variety of the game. Traditional Chinese rules had two unnecessary restrictions: (1) setup stones, a completely uncalled-for restriction that greatly reduced the variety of both even games and handicap games; and (2) the rule forbidding self-removal of a group of stones despite the presence of variation, another obviously unnecessary restriction that reduces the variety of the game. The more variety there is in wei-ch’i, the better; the rule that the move is unrestricted except for invariation abolished unnecessary restrictions and adds variations that could not have appeared under traditional rules. In past centuries, the Japanese rules have made two major contributions to wei-ch’i: (1) The elimination of setup stones from even games greatly increased the variety in the game. Unfortunately, setup stones have still not been eliminated from handicap games. Setup stones may simplify handicap games for White, but the sooner they are abolished, the better. (2) The elimination of „group tax” led to new three-three point variations in the corner. When a player invades at the three-three point, the group tax costs him about four points, so in old Chinese game records there were very few three-three point invasions early in the game.

Section B: Life and death are determined by removal, without exception; example of bent four in the corner

Stones live or die according to whether or not they can be removed: stones that can be removed are dead; stones that cannot be removed are alive. There are no exceptions whatsoever to this rule that life and death are determined by removal. This standard for life and death is objective, reasonable, and fair, and leaves no room for argument. Conditions under which bent four in the corner lives and dies are shown next.


Diagram B1. Diagram B2. Diagram B3. Diagram B4.
Basic pattern. Killing ko sequence, Killing ko sequence, Killing ko sequence,
moves 1 and 2. moves 3 and 4. move 5.


Diagrams B5 and B6. Basic pattern variations.

Life or death of bent four in the corner is closely related to the whole board.


Diagram B7. Diagram B8. Diagram B9. Diagram B10.
No ko threat: death. Large ko threat: life. Small ko threat: First player wins.
exchange.

Five type and eight patterns of breathing points
Spaces adjacent to stones in a life-or-death situation are called breathing points, or breaths. For stones, life is breath: stones live with breathing points and die without them. Breathing points can be classified into five types according to life and death: (1) permanent breaths for independent life, (2) balancing breaths for coexistence, (3) fighting breaths for ko life, (4) interchangeable breaths for disturbances that do not alter life and death, and (5) unreal breaths for non-life.
There are eight breath patterns, Permanent and balancing breaths occur in life, and there are always at least two. Without two breathing points, stones die; their breath is unreal. There are four basic breath patterns: (1) territory breaths and (2) eye breaths are always permanent breaths; (3) shared breaths and (4) ko breaths are always balanced breaths.


Diagram B11. Diagram B12. Diagram B13. Diagram B14.
Territory breaths. Eye breaths. Shared breaths. Ko breaths.

There are also three combined patterns involving balancing breaths, and one compound pattern of unreal breaths: (5) shared and eye breaths; (6) shared and ko breaths; (7) eye and ko breaths; and (8) compound unreal breaths. In the last of these patterns, a general unreal breath is paired with an eye or ko breath in such a way that there can never be two eye or ko breaths. For fighting and interchangeable breaths, see Section C.


Diagram B15. Diagram B16.
Shared and eye Eye and ko breaths:
breaths. variation.

Note: Variation B16 was discovered by the Japanese rules theorist Kaise Takaaki. The three black stones and three white stones are actually one eye each.


Diagram B17. Diagram B18. Diagram B19. Diagram B20.
Shared and ko breaths. Eye and ko breaths. Unreal breaths. Compound pattern
of unreal breaths.

Section C: The fighting/disturbing ko distinction; the game has an outcome

When two opposing groups are locked together in the tiger’s-mouth shape, the stones in the opposing side’s mouth can be repetitively or cyclically removed, so these stones are called ko stones. There are three types of ko stones: single, double, and triple.
Repetitive removal occurs in fighting ko. Cyclic removal occurs in disturbing ko. If not restricted by rules, both repetitive and cyclic removal lead to invariation, obstructing the end of the game so that the game has to be annulled. If the hot stones in a fighting ko could be removed immediately, removal would follow removal without end, neither side willing to give in, causing invariation. The fighting ko rule accordingly states that hot stones cannot be removed until after an interval of one board play or pass play. Invariation is thus prohibited; other moves are unrestricted.
In addition to the removal of hot stones in a fighting ko, recycling in a disturbing ko can also continue endlessly, causing invariation. The disturbing ko rule accordingly states that after one cycle, the disturber is never allowed to continue disturbing. Disturbance of the game is limited to one cycle; after the first cycle, further disturbance constitutes recycling. Immediate removal of hot stones in a fighting ko and recycling in a disturbing ko must both be prohibited as causing invariation; otherwise we will never be rid of the annulments found in the Japanese rules.


Diagram C1. Diagram C2. Diagram C3. Diagram C4.
Single ko stone. Double ko stones. Triple ko stones Triple ko stones
in actual play, I in actual play, II.

In the example of „triple ko stones in actual play”, White 2 and Black 7 are game-disturbing moves that use ko threats cyclically. This must be prohibited.

The next four examples illustrate fighting ko with three types of hot stones: single, double, and twin. Single and triple ko are shown.


Diagram C5. Diagram C6. Diagram C7. Diagram C8.
Single hot Double hot Twin hot Twin hot
stone: B1. stones: B1 stones: B1 stones: B1
and triangle. and triangle. and triangles.

The next four examples illustrate disturbing ko, showing disturbed life. In disturbed life, one side attempts to kill the other side’s live stones or coexistence stones.


Diagram C9. Diagram C10. Diagram C11. Diagram C12.
Sending two and Quadruple ko: Triple ko with Double ko stones:
returning one. coexistence with an eye: coexist- coexistence with
Disturbed life balanced breaths. ence with balanced balanced breaths.
in which Black 1 Disturbed life in breaths. Disturbed Disturbed life in
is the disturber. which either can life in which Black which either side
be the disturber. can be the disturber. can be the disturber.

The next three examples also illustrate disturbing ko, showing disturbed death. In disturbed death, a player disturbs his own dead stones.


Diagram C13. String ko: moonshine life. Diagram C14. Triple ko with an eye:
White is the disturber, using the double disturbed death. White cannot connect
ko in the bottom right. the ko. White is the disturber.


Diagram C15. Disturbed death with two separate
double kos: invariation. Black is the disturber. Recycling is
prohibited, so Black is dead.

Section D: Stones and spaces are both territory; spaces belong to their boundary

After the dead stones have been taken away at the end of the game, all that remains are (1) Black’s live stones, (2) White’s live stones, and (3) spaces on the board. The sum of these three entities is necessarily equal to the total number of points on the board. Since stones and spaces are both territory, every point on the board is territory. Every point is counted; not one of the 361 points on the board is left uncounted; all are territory. The boundaries of the territory are determined by living stones; spaces form territory within the boundaries. If the boundary is all black, the spaces are black; if the boundary is all white, the spaces are white; if the boundary is both black and white, the spaces are shared. See Dias. D1 and D2.


Diagram D1. Diagram D2.
Black spaces Shared spaces.
and white space.

When there is a coexistence position on the board, the breathing points shared by both sides form spaces with boundaries made up of both black and white stones. These are called shared spaces; they are shared equally between the two sides.

Section E: Explanation of the fill-in counting procedure

(1) Introduction: Fill-in counting is the only procedure that works perfectly with counting both stones and spaces as territory. Applying the principle of using stones to measure territory, it derives the unknown difference in territory from the known total number of stones. At the end of the game, all 360 stones are filled into the 361 points, leaving one winning space, or if not a winning space, then a shared space. When there is only one shared space, it cannot be filled in, but when there are two or more shared spaces, each side fills half of them.
The advantages of fill-in counting are: (1) the configuration on the whole board is left undisturbed, and (2) the margin of victory is clear at a glance. Fill-in counting also produces an aesthetically pleasing apperance and keeps the set of stones complete. This scientific counting procedure was introduced by the SST rules. Extensive experience has shown that fill-in counting takes one minute at the fastest, two minutes on the average, and three minutes at the slowest.

(2) Difference value: The difference value has two components:
1. Stones filled into spaces of the other color: losing stones, compensation stones, and penalty stones.
2. A space that is left over or cannot be filled in: a winning space or a shared space.
The combination of stones and spaces in the difference value gives the margin of victory in the game. There are four possible combinations:
1. Winning space
2. Winning space and losing stones
3. Shared space
4. Shared space and losing stones.
Combinations of 1 and 2 account for 99.5 percent of all cases.

(3) Step size: Under SST rules, the margin of victory changes in steps of two points. In the total 361 points, if one side gains one point then the other side must lose one point; the combination of plus one and minus one gives a difference of two points. When the score is adjusted by compensation points or time-difference penalty points, the unit of adjustment is therfore two points; the score cannot be adjust by an odd number of points. (1) In a game with no shared space, the margin of victory is odd. (2) In a game with a shared space the margin of victory is even.

(4) Positioning: The stones and spaces of the difference value are located in definite positions. Winning spaces are positioned in the corner of the largest territory, or on a side if no corner is available. Losing strones are positioned on a side, adjacent to the winning space if one remains, or near the shared space if no winning space remains. Compensation stones and penalty stones are filled into seprate areas (as close as possible to the winning or shared space). The margin of victory is then clear at a glance.


Diagram E1. Winning space and eight point Diagram E2. Winning space and losing stones
compensation: Black wins by one point. with eight point compensation: Black wins by five points.


Diagram E3. Shared space with no compensation: Diagram E4. Shared space and one losing stone
draw. with no compensation: Black wins by two points.


Diagrams Illustrating the Three Principles of the Law of Wei-Ch’i

(1) Moves are unrestricted except for invariation.
(2) Ko is classified as fighting or disturbing.
(3) All stones are filled in to count.

Breathless stones are removed. Life and death are determined by removal.

Removing a Self-removal as Self-removal to Breathless
breathless stones a ko threat. gain coexistence. simultaneously.
proves clearly The opponent’s
that it is dead. stones are removed.

Ko prevents invariation. Fighting ko Hot stones

Single ko with a Single ko with Triple ko with Triple ko with
single ko stone double ko stones. a single ko stone. single and double
ko stones.

Ko prevents invariation. Disturbing ko Disturbed life

Sending two and Triple ko with Quadruple ko: Double ko:
returning one: an eye: single single ko stone. double ko stones.
single and double ko stone. Either side Either side
ko stones. Black is the disturber can be the disturber. can be the disturber.
Black is the disturber

Ko prevents invariation. Disturbing ko Disturbed death

Disturbed death: Disturbed death: Disturbed death: two
moonshine life triple ko with separate groups with eyes.
White is the disturber. an eye. White is Black is the disturber.
the disturber.

Stones and spaces are both territory.
All stones are filled in to count.


Stones and spaces Black gives four points
are both territory. compensation and wins
by one point.


Diagram of the Ping-Tuan-Chi Rating Scale

Scale Comparison

Ing Symbols for Tournament Results

^Won ^Draw ^Lost
‘Uncon- ‘By com- ‘By for- ‘Uncon- ‘By com- ‘By for-
‘dition- ‘pensa- ‘feit ‘dition- ‘pensa- ‘feit
‘ally ‘tion ‘ally ‘tion
‘Black [A gofig INSET WAS HERE] [A gofig INSET WAS HERE] [A gofig INSET WAS HERE] [A gofig INSET WAS HERE] [A gofig INSET WAS HERE] [A gofig INSET WAS HERE] [A gofig INSET WAS HERE]
‘White [A gofig INSET WAS HERE] [A gofig INSET WAS HERE] [A gofig INSET WAS HERE] [A gofig INSET WAS HERE] [A gofig INSET WAS HERE] [A gofig INSET WAS HERE] [A gofig INSET WAS HERE]

Ing Tournament System

(diagram omitted)

1. This chart shows a tournament to select three winners from sixteen particiapants. A player gets in (leaves the tournament as a winner) when he wins four more games than he has lost. For other numbers of participants or desired winners, the in and out lines can be adjusted.

2. Pairings are made by closest number on the same line, except that, if possible, the same two players should not meet twice in the same tournament.

3. Winners move up one line.

4. A box around a number indicates that it was borrowed from a different line to pair an odd number of players.


Summary of the Ing’s Rules

Moves are board or pass plays.
Moves are unrestricted except for invariation.
Breathless stones are removed.
Life and death are determined by removal.
Ko prevents invaritation.
Ko is classified as fighting or disturbing.
Stones and spaces are both territory.
All stones are filled in to count.

Ing Chang-Ki Wei-Ch’i Educational Foundation

4F, No. 35, Kuan Fu S. Rd.,
Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Tel:886-2-7614117
Fax:886-2-7686940

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